ELT 7008: Actvity 10 - Use of Reflection
Reflection is a critical element in all learning, but even more so in the online learning environment. Discuss the role of reflection and strategies that can be used by instructors to promote the reflective process in an online course. Also, discuss ways that students can collaboratively reflect on course concepts.

The role of the instructor according to Palloff and Pratt (2007) is to “encourage conscious, critical reflection of the material and self” (p. 200). In order to promote reflection within the classroom social presence must exist. Social presence fosters the learners skills to reflect given “the absence of social presence leads to an inability to express disagreements, share viewpoints, explore differences, and accept support and confirmation from peers and teacher” (Jones, Kolloff & Kolloff, 2008, p. 2). With respect to reflective inquiry Garrison (2007) stated:
inquiry is based on questioning from both teacher and students, individually and collaboratively, seeking
answers to these questions, and then confirming understanding, diagnosing misconceptions and testing solutions through applications and/or discourse. Taking responsibility and control of one’s learning is coreto reflective inquiry and self-directed learning as well as the development of metacognitive abilities that ultimately provide the foundation for continued learning. Inquiry requires an environment of both freedom andsupport. (p. 8)
In reference to transformative learning and reflection Palloff and Pratt (2007) stated “this type of learning is rooted in the meaning-making process that is central to constructivism, which we have already established as a major feature of the online classroom” (p. 185).Palloff and Pratt (2007) noted “we cannot encourage our students to engage in a transformative process if we are unwilling to do so ourselves” (p. 203). Thus it is important for instructors to model the behavior expected of the learners and to demonstrate the role of reflection within the e-classroom.

The 21st century learning and working environment is different and the role of education must adapt to create “educational opportunities that are responsive to the demands of students and the world in which they work and live” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 235). In doing so learners must be afforded opportunities for reflective inquiry in order to utilize the information learned in an ever-changing world of instant access to information.

Explore the use of reflection within the e-classroom learning environment as we journey through the topics presented in the videos and presentation. The topics presented include:
  • Role of reflection
  • Reflective activities
  • Reflecting collaboratively
  • Strategies to promote reflection
  • Transformative learning
  • Lessons learned

A brief summary of key components discussed in the presentation as they pertain to the role of reflection:

Use of Reflection Video Introduction

Use of Reflection Presentation with Narration - Presenter Notes Available


Use of Reflection - Video My Self-Reflection of Activity 10

Use of Reflection - Video My Self-Reflection of ELT 7008 - Online Communities

Resource Videos Embedded within the Presentation

Take a few minutes to view the YouTube videos by Curtis Bonk and by The University of New South Wales, C of A Online as well as reviewing the resources and references used to complete this assignment as they provide a solid background to explore the reflective process in the e-learning environment.

Online Writing and Reflection Activities by Curtis Bonk

Using ePortfolios as a Reflective Teaching Tool - Case study Video Presentation by C of A Online, University of New South Wales

References and Resources

Bender, T. (2003). Discussion based online teaching to enhance student learning: Theory, practice and assessment. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Bonk, C. (2011, July 31). Online writing and reflection activities [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEjo1Bd_DSw&feature=channel_video_title

C of A Online, University of New South Wales (2011, May 12). Using eportfolios as a reflective teaching tool - case study [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUxM2OOPMMw&feature=channel_video_title

Chin, S., & Williams, J. (2006, March). A theoretical framework for effective online course design. Journal of Online Teaching and Learning 2(1), 12-21. Retrieved from http://scholar.googleusercontent.com/scholar?q=cache:DBCitQmkIOYJ:scholar.google.com/+online+collaboration+and+real-life+situations&hl=en&as_sdt=0,38

Conrad, R., & Donaldson, J. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Dabbagh, N. (2007). The online learner: Characteristics and pedagogical implications. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 7(3), 217-226. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Garrison, D. R. (2006). Online collaboration principles. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 10(1),25-34. Retrieved from

Garrison, D.R. (2007). Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition. In J. Bourne & J.C. Moore (Eds), Elements of quality online education: Practice and Direction, 4, 29-38. Sloan C Series, Needham: MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://oit.hostos.cuny.edu/socialnetwork/effectiveonlinelearning/files/2009/09/Learning-Effectiveness-paper-Garrison.pdf

Garrison, D. R. (2007, April). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 11(1) 61-72. Retrieved from http://sites.google.com/site/galexambrose/my-log/communityofinquiryarticlereview/2007JALNOnlineCommunityofInquiryReview.pdf

Haythornthwaite, C. (2006). Facilitating collaboration in online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Networks, 10(1) 7-24. Retrieved from http://scholar.googleusercontent.com/scholar?q=cache:xQnoRWMqC3cJ:scholar.google.com/+how+to+establish+teams+online+learning&hl=en&as_sdt=0,38

Jones, P., Kolloff, M., & Kolloff, F. (2008). Teaching them to think: Best practices for developing critical thinking skills for online learner. Presented at the 24th Annual conference on distance teaching and learning. Retrieved from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/proceedings/08_12902.pdf

Lehman, R., & Conceicao, S. (2010). Creating a sense of presence in online teaching: How to 'be there' for distance learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lombardi, M. (2007a, May). Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview. In D. Oblinger (Ed.), Educause Learning Initiative [White paper]. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3009.pdf

Lombardi, M. (2007b, July). Approaches that work: How authentic learning is transforming higher education. In D. Oblinger (Ed.), Educause Learning Initiative [White paper]. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3013.pdf

Lucas, U., & Tan, P. (2006). Assessing levels of reflective thinking: the evaluation of an instrument for use within accounting and business education. Paper presented to the 1st Pedagogic Research in Higher Education Conference, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, 2nd/3rd May, 2006 Retrieved from http://www2.uwe.ac.uk/faculties/BBS/BUS/Research/DRC/prhe.pdf

Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2003). Exploring technology-mediated learning from a pedagogical perspective. Journal of Interactive Learning Environments, 11(2), 111-126. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2001). The virtual student: A profile and guide to working with online learners. San Francisco: CA; Jossey-Bass.

Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco: CA; Jossey-Bass.

Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pilling-Cormick, J., & Garrison, R. D. (2007). Self-directed and self-regulated learning: Conceptual links. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education 33(2), 13-33. Retrieved from http://www.ccde.usask.ca/cjuce/articles/v33pdf/3321.pdf

Salen, T. (2007). Weblogs and blogging: Constructivist pedagogy and active learning in higher education. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1956/2243

Singh, G., Hawkins, L, & Whymark, G. (2007). An integrated model of collaborative knowledge building. In Alex Koohang (Ed.), Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects 3, 85-106. Retrieved from http://www.ijello.org/Volume3/IJKLOv3p085-105Singh385.pdf

Sontag, M. (2009, April/May). A learning theory for 21st century students. Journal of Online Education 5(4). Retrieved from http://innovateonline.info/pdf/vol5_issue4/A_Learning_Theory_for_21st-Century_Students.pdf

Swan, K., Shen, J. & Hiltz, S. (2006). Assessment and collaboration in online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 10(1), 45-62. Retrieved from http://scholar.googleusercontent.com/scholar?q=cache:uoVpSX9ElYgJ:scholar.google.com/+assessing+collaborative+online+activities&hl=en&as_sdt=0,38

Swan, K., & Shih, L. (2005, October). On the nature and development of social presence in online course discussions. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 9(3), 115-136.Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Wallace, S. Transformative Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://transformativelearningtheory.com/corePrinciples.html